La crise économique a favorisé la paix dans le monde

par La rédaction

L’indice international de mesure de la paix dans le monde fait globalement état de progrès en 2011, notamment grâce à l’austérité dans les dépenses militaires. La France ne figure pas parmi les pays les plus pacifiés.


Le monde s’est légèrement pacifié en 2011, selon le classement annuel actualisé que vient de publier l’Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP – Institut pour l’économie et la paix). Son Global Peace Index (GPI), indice international de mesure de la paix dans le monde, « évalue les conflits internationaux et nationaux actuels, les niveaux de sûreté et de sécurité dans la société, ainsi que le militarisme, au sein de 158 pays, en tenant compte de 23 indicateurs distincts. »

Situation paradoxale : outre la baisse des attaques terroristes, c’est la crise économique qui a principalement contribué à la paix en 2011. Et ce, en raison des « restrictions du budget de la défense liées aux mesures d’austérité ». Ainsi, les six des pays ayant effectué les dépenses militaires les plus élevées (Brésil, France, Allemagne, Inde, Royaume-Uni et États-Unis) ont tous réduit leur budget alloué à la défense en 2011.

Instabilité résultant du Printemps arabe

Pour la deuxième année consécutive, l’Islande est le pays le plus pacifié, et la Somalie est à la dernière place. Les progrès sont toutefois sensibles en Afrique subsaharienne. « Les guerres régionales se sont apaisées tandis que l’Union africaine s’efforce de renforcer son intégration économique et politique », analyse Steve Killelea, Président exécutif de l’IEP.

Le Moyen-Orient et l’Afrique du Nord sont maintenant les régions les moins pacifiques du monde. « Cette dégradation reflète largement les bouleversements et l’instabilité résultant du Printemps arabe », observe l’Institut.

L’Europe occidentale reste nettement la région la plus en paix, la majorité des pays se classant dans les 20 premiers de l’indice. Mais la France figure assez loin dans ce classement, à la 40ème position. Ce sont ses capacités militaires et ses exportations d’armes (la France est le 4ème exportateur mondial), principalement, qui plombent le classement français. Mais ce mauvais résultat est également dû à des facteurs internes. En particulier le fameux « sentiment d’insécurité », ainsi que la probabilité de « manifestations violentes ».

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